Creating engaging visions for programme management White Paper
- White Paper
- Programme management
- Benefits realization
- Stakeholder management
October 28, 2019 |
31 min read
- White Paper
- Programme management
- Benefits realization
- Stakeholder management
This white paper discusses a range of ideas and examples to demonstrate how to create an inspiring vision for programme management.
It describes exactly what a vision is and look at the range of benefits that a clear vision gives to a change programme and uses the Managing Successful Programme (MSP®) framework to analyze how vision sits within programme management.
The paper also discusses an example of vision from the Port of London Authority and shows how the programme team used many vision best practices to bring together a whole range of sometimes conflicting stakeholders to create a cohesive picture for how London’s main waterway, the Thames, could be used for the benefit of business, the environment and the residents of the UK’s capital city.
Think back to the last major change in your own organization. No matter what sort of change it was; implementing a new IT system, merging two departments together or digitizing an area of your business – there was probably a great deal of resistance against moving forward.
When any organization tries to deliver large scale transformation, they are confronted with the same problem – many people do not want to change. We are all, to some extent, stuck in our ways whether it is the way we work, think or the people we prefer to work with. Creating a compelling vision of the future is key to overcoming this resistance. A vision helps to motivate, engage and paint a picture of a compelling destination that people want to go to.
Great business leaders know how to use vision to motivate and engage their staff. Tim Cook said about Apple, ‘We believe that we are on the face of the earth to make great products and that’s not changing’. Elon Musk might attract controversy, but he is undeniably a man with vision. He set out a simple, but powerful vision to his staff at SpaceX when he said, “We’re going to land people on Mars by 2025.” Sometimes an organization’s vision does not need to be spoken. It is there for all to see in the leader’s behaviour. Richard Branson is a well-known business maverick, disrupting the status quo of many industries, and these values are endemic in all the organizations he leads.
You might not be trying to change a multinational company; maybe the change you are leading, or managing is modest, but you can still use vision as a tool to motivate people. This white paper will look at a range of ideas and examples to show you how to create an inspiring vision for programme management. I will firstly describe in more detail exactly what a vision is and look at the range of benefits that a clear vision gives to a change programme. I will be using the Managing Successful Programme (MSP®) framework to analyze how vision sits within programme management however, it is not necessary for readers to under- stand MSP before reading this paper. The framework covers many aspect of programme management, but for the purpose of this paper, I will show how it helps a programme management team develop and communicate a powerful vision to engage stakeholders through a change and how this vision can be used to design the future state of the organization and scope out a range of projects to deliver this design.
Finally, I will look at an example of vision from the Port of London Authority and show how the programme team used many vision best practices to bring together a whole range of sometimes conflicting stakeholders to create a cohesive picture for how London’s main waterway, the Thames, could be used for the benefit of business, the environment and the residents of the UK’s capital city.
When faced with the prospect of creating a vision, many people don’t know where to start. The term ‘vision’ sounds almost mystical. What are they supposed to produce; some sort of prophecy of the future? A vision is a very tangible thing which creates concrete benefits. I think the first step is to clearly understand what a vision is, and what it isn’t.
Managing Successful Programmes (MSP®) describes a vision as ‘a picture of a better future that will be delivered by the programme’ or ‘a post card from the future’. What MSP calls the vision statement is a key part of framework. However, it would be a mistake to think of vision as a purely MSP term; it is also widely used in many other leadership and management approaches.
For example, Peter Drucker said that ‘an effective leader knows that the ultimate task of leadership is to create human energies and human vision.’ (Drucker, 1992) Recognised expert in organizational change, John Kotter defined vision as ‘a picture of the future with some implicit or explicit commentary on why people should strive to create that future.’ (Kotter, 2012)
Vision can not only set out a direction for a programme but can also paint a picture of the future for a whole organization or even a country. For example, in 2016, the Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia announced Saudi Vision 2030 with the aim of creating a more open country, with less dependence on oil and increased investment in areas such as health, education, infrastructure, recreation and tourism.
With these definitions and examples, a pattern starts to emerge showing some of the characteristics of a vision. A vision focuses on the future, it can connect to its intended audience and it creates an emotional pull towards a destination. Companies often create two rather similar descriptions: a mission and a vision. There is often some interchangeability between the two statements, but it is generally accepted practice that a mission states where the organization is now, covering what work it does, how it does this work and who it works with. A vision looks ahead to the hopes and dreams of the organization, and how they are going to inspire people to strive for this future. For example, Amazon’s mission is ‘to offer our customers the lowest possible prices, the best available selection, and the utmost convenience.’ This sentence focuses on what they are doing now. Whereas their vision is ‘to be Earth’s most customer-centric company, where customers can find and discover anything they might want to buy online’, which states where they want to be.
What would be an example of a programme vision? I was recently involved with a change programme to implement agile best practices into a software development organization. The programme included a range of projects to implement new faster, cloud-based systems, more automation into their operational processes, new management practices and a new culture. At first the programme management team struggled to communicate the broad purpose of these seemingly disparate projects to their staff, until one day one of their developers remarked that what they were really doing was changing their oil tanker operation into a speed boat. From that moment on the speed boat image stuck. It perfectly summed up the values and direction of the programme. They included a speed boat image in all their communications.
I think this example illustrates an important point. Visions can take many forms. Yes, a vision statement is useful. Developing such a statement with a range of stakeholders can help create consensus and distil down the broad objectives of the programme. But once people have heard the statement a few times it becomes just another overused and hackneyed business line. So, it is important for the programme team to think of other ways of presenting the vision. Can they use other methods that align with the ideas in the statements: stories, images or inspiring presentations?
So, visions communicate an inspirational and relevant place to go for their audience, they can be set at many different levels, they are different from a mission which describes where we are now and can take many forms. In the next section, I will explore the benefits that a vision can bring and how they are essential for any successful change programme.
The importance of vision
A strong engaging vision creates many benefits for programme management. Firstly, it helps to overcome people’s resistance to change. Rosabeth Moss Kanter identified ten reasons that people resist change (Kanter, 2012):
- A fear that they will lose control of some of their workplace ‘territory’
- A sense of uncertainty about where the change will take them
- If changes are implemented on people suddenly and without taking account of people’s concerns
- If people had a hand in creating the past and that is now being challenged by the change, it can lead to a loss of face
- A concern about their competence to cope with the new reality
- If a change leads to more work
- If the effect of changes starts to ripple outwards and affect a wider circle of stakeholders who were not involved in designing the change
- If changes start to open old wounds and historic resentments
- If there are genuine costs to the change.
A strong compelling vision creates excitement about the new destination. This positive feeling helps to crowd out some of these negative root causes of resistance. Crafting a compelling vision with the programme’s stakeholders helps them to feel involved with the change and if it is done with a wide
enough set of stakeholders, it will avoid a negative ripple effect. It also creates greater clarity about the organization’s direction, helping to quell uncertainty.
Another benefit of a compelling vision is that they are consumable across a wide range of audiences. Too many programmes and projects rely heavily on documentation and communications filled with jargon and specialist terms. They leave people confused about where a programme is going. Visions, however, are simple and clear for whoever sees them. The image of the speed boat in the agile initiative I described earlier ticked this box. It helped to spread the message of the programme to a whole variety of audiences.
Because visions communicate across a wide audience, they start to pull more people towards their destination. This creates a self-reinforcing effect. As more people buy into the vision others will follow. A bandwagon effect is achieved. In his article, ‘The Frontier of Change: Five Strategies to Accelerate Change to Critical Mass’, Chris Meyer talks about the importance of reaching a critical mass of people, ‘when the people and systems operating in the new way achieve unstoppable momentum.’ (Meyer, 2010). Visions help to pull more initiatives, projects and people to a common aim until this critical mass is achieved.
Without a clear direction, programmes can easily suffer from scope creep. Often unauthorized by those that govern the programme, more work starts to be added, either because people are confused about what the programme should contain or because people use the confusion to add work to fulfil their own personal objectives. Programmes that rely on obtuse programme definition documentation filled with technical jargon are particularly prone to scope creep. A clear vision which is understood by all makes it easy to see whether work should be in or outside of the programme.
The programme’s vision creates a clear and stable beacon showing the direction of the programme. The blueprint for the future organization and the programme design might change, but the vision shines in the same direction. This helps in the process of continual realignment as changes to the corporate strategy and wider environment occur. The vision helps to keep focus on what is important.
Consider the Amazon vision I described earlier. ‘To be Earth’s most customer-centric company, where customers can find and discover anything they might want to buy online.’ This can be a constant. It is value focused and values can stay static regardless of whether Amazon is using artificial intelligence to deliver that aim, cloud computing, or doing it in a growing economy or a recession.
Defining a clear and compelling vision at the outset establishes a stable foundation for all the later parts of the programme. Programme plans, stakeholder maps, programme management strategies and blueprints are all created from the vision. I worked at an organization where they had rushed through creating a vision. They had created a few aspirational sentences which didn’t describe a tangible direction. As a result, no one was engaged or inspired by the vision. There were two distinct and diametrically opposed stakeholder factions and this rather superficial vision had done nothing to bring these two factions together. When they tried to move on to define and plan the programme in more detail they ran into many problems. There were so many disagreements that the programme started to grind to a halt.
I suggested going back and revisiting the vision with the stakeholders. Initially this idea was met with a great deal of scepticism. The programme leader told me the ‘vision had been done’. I think he must have seen programme management as a tick box exercise, once each document had been created, you could move on. However, a vision isn’t completed until people are inspired by it, and it brings people together. Unless this happens, it is very difficult to move on to later parts of programme management. In the end, they agreed to run a vision workshop and invited the key people from the two warring stakeholder factions. After a long, and sometimes turgid, meeting, we started to find some common ground around the vision.
It wasn’t an easy exercise but over the weeks to come we were able to build on this common ground and move the programme forward.
As I have shown, a vision plays a very important role in programme management, helping to overcome resistance to change, providing a stable and clear direction for the initiative and helping people see the wider purpose of their role. In the next section I will look at how vision fits within the MSP approach to programme management.
Vision and the Managing Successful Programmes framework
A clear and inspiring vision is a necessary condition for a successful change programme. However, a vision on its own is not enough. There are many elements to successful programme management:
- A clear programme organizational structure covering all the necessary decision making, managing and delivery roles.>
- A clear understanding of the flow of programme management actions that are needed from the point of inception to the delivery of the programme’s products and services to finally embedding those products and services into normal operations to deliver value.
- An outline of the array of different types of programme information and documentation that are needed.
Managing Successful Programmes provides a framework which shows how these elements can be combined to deliver successful change within an organization. MSP® backs up what I have said already on how important a vision is to deliver change; it also provides important detail about who should develop and communicate this vision throughout the programme, and how the vision relates to all the other informational elements of a successful programme. Before looking at how MSP does this, it is necessary to explain some of the core parts of the MSP framework.
4.1 AN OVERVIEW OF THE MSP FRAMEWORK
The MSP framework is made up of three core concepts, which are shown on Figure 4.1:
- Seven underlying principles of good programme management: These include the principles of learning from experience, the importance of leading change and, particularly relevant for this paper, the need to envision and communicate a better future.
- Nine governance themes: These provide the core elements of an effective governance framework for a programme. These include themes that provide guidance on creating and maintaining a programme business case, approaching leadership and stakeholder engagement and, particularly relevant for this paper, the vision theme, which covers developing and communicating the programme’s vision.
- Transformational flow: This shows the interrelated steps of the lifecycle of the programme. It includes six main processes: Identifying a Programme, Defining a Programme, Managing the Tranches, Delivering the Capability, Realizing the Benefits.
Figure 4.1 MSP Framework and Concepts
Another key aspect of MSP is the different roles and responsibilities of the framework. There are a range of roles defined in the best practice, but the most important ones to describe for this white paper are:
- The senior responsible owner (SRO): This one person is accountable for the programme, ensuring that it meets its objectives and realizes the expected benefits. One of the key responsibilities of the SRO is creating and communicating the vision for the programme.
- The programme manager: The programme manager has primary responsibility for delivering the new capabilities and establishing governance within the programme
- The business change manager(s) (BCM): The BCM is responsible for embedding the new capability into the organization’s operations and facilitating business changes to exploit this capability to deliver the benefits from the programme. There may be more than one BCM taken from different areas of the organization that will be affected by the programme.
The last part of the MSP framework which is relevant for this paper, is the guidance on programme information. This explains what documentation a programme management team should establish, where the information could be sourced from and what contents each document might contain. MSP provides guidelines on twenty-eight types of information, ranging from benefits profiles, business case and most significantly for this paper, the vision statement.
MSP Guidance developing and communicating the vision
Now that I have reviewed the structure of the MSP framework, I will describe the MSP guidance for developing and communicating the programme vision across MSP’s transformational flow.
5.1 IDENTIFYING A PROGRAMME
Before the transformational flow, there will have been an idea for a change to the organization. This could come from many sources, but most likely comes from a corporate strategic planning function or policy development unit. In the Identifying a Programme process, the sponsoring group will pull information together about this strategic idea into a programme mandate, which will set out the strategic objects and critical success factors. The mandate will also describe the threats and/or opportunities that the organization faces which necessitates the change the programme will bring and describe the current state of the organization.
Using the base information in the programme mandate the SRO will now work with the sponsoring group and any other affected stakeholders to create the programme brief. The programme brief provides the formal basis for assessing whether the proposed programme is viable and achievable. A key part of the programme brief is the outline vision statement. This first cut of the vision statement will start to give a clear direction of where the organization is going. It will also start to give the programme team an understanding of the costs, timescales and resources.
In the envisioning and communicating a better future principle, MSP stresses the importance of a clear vision, saying that it is an important pre-requisite of any successful change. MSP gives a lot of guidance to help programme teams develop a vision. Within the vision governance theme MSP lists a range of characteristics of a good vision statement. These state that a vision:
- Is written in a future state
Provides a snapshot of how the organization will look in the future
- Can be easily understood by a wide variety of stakeholders and audiences
- It does not contain jargon or technical terms
- Describes a compelling, desirable future
- A vision engages the heart as well as a head
- Is a courageous statement
- It is bold and compelling
- Sets out the current reality
- >Presents the reasons why the organization cannot remain in the current state
- Unless absolutely necessary does not set target dates
- Is a balance between a verifiable statement
- But not overly heavy on performance targets
- >Is flexible enough to be relevant over the period of the programme
- Is short and memorable
Once the outline vision statement is finished the SRO and the sponsoring group must approve it along with the rest of the programme brief.
5.2 DEFINING A PROGRAMME
In the ‘Defining a Programme’ process, the programme team, the SRO, the programme manager and the BCM’s work together to provide greater clarity around the initiative. Part of this work will involve revisiting the vision statement and refining it. A range of other documents are created to give a clearer understanding of the work involved to deliver the programme and what the programme will achieve. These include:
- This is sometimes referred to as the target operating model. It gives a detailed description of the future state of the organization. It will describe areas such as the future organization’s processes, the organizational structure, the future culture, technology and future informational architecture.
- A set of benefit profiles showing what organizational benefits will be realized by the programme and how these will be measured using certain organizational key performance indicators.
- Benefit maps which show the sequential relationship between the benefits.
- Project dossier which show the range of projects that will be needed to run in order to deliver the blueprint.
- Programme plan which will short the sequence and timing of the projects and the programme governance activities.
Although the vision is a key input into the development of the documents listed above, it is also likely that these documents will provide information which will help to expand or refine the vision itself. In other words, the vision and the other key documents developed in ‘Defining a Programme’ will probably be developed in an iterative fashion.
One of the benefits of a clear vision statement is that it enables the programme team to create the more detailed definition of what the programme will deliver (the blueprint and the benefit profiles) and how this will be done (the project dossier and the programme plan). These help the SRO fulfil one of their key responsibilities, determining whether the organization can achieve the vision. The vision statement also provides a clear focus ensuring that all the detail described in documents (like the blueprint and programme plan) aligns together to deliver a consistent, coherent aim.
As previously mentioned, a key benefit of a clear vision is it helps the programme team communicate the importance and the direction of the programme. It helps to create stakeholder engagement and buy-in. Regularly communicating the vision at all programme events and communication channels is important. During ‘Defining a Programme’. the programme team will create the stakeholder engagement strategy, the stakeholder profiles and programme communication plan which will describe how this communication will occur and provide a governance framework for ensuring it happens.
5.3 MANAGING THE TRANCHES
The first two processes of the transformational flow could be thought of as the beginning of the programme. Now, in ‘Managing the Tranches’, the programme starts to deliver new capabilities and embed them into the organization. This is done on a tranche-by-tranche basis. Each tranche will both deliver capabilities in the form of new products and services (normally through a collection of projects) and the organization derives value and benefits by using these new capabilities. Each tranche delivers a step change in capability after which benefits realization can be assessed. A tranche comes to an end when the new capability has been delivered, transition to using the capability is completed and outcomes have been achieved.
During ‘Managing the Tranches’, the SRO will review any decision against whether or not it moves the programme nearer or further from the vision. As MSP describes it; the vision acts as a ‘guiding beacon.’ Any decision on changing the programme’s blueprint, scope or objectives can be tested against the vision. The vision also helps the SRO clearly see if there is still alignment between the organization’s strategy and the programme. If the organization’s direction starts to veer away from the programme’s direction, the SRO needs to discuss this with the organization’s governance body.
As we have seen the vision’s direction should remain mostly constant. However, if there is a need to change the vision or maybe reinterpret its direction, the SRO, and maybe other senior executives in the organization, would be responsible for such a decision.
The other key vision-related activity is continually communicating the vision to engage the programme’s stakeholders. All of the programme management team, from the SRO to the BCM’s in various parts of the organization need to follow the directions in the programme communication plan to communicate the vision in many different ways and continually discuss its implications with the programme’s stakeholders.
The end of each tranche provides a major assurance point where the programme management team can assess the success and decide whether to move on to the next tranche. Ultimately this boils down to the question, are we moving towards the vision? Whilst all programmes should have a clear vision, the route to achieving that vision might not be clear at the outset. Early tranches might be dedicated to exploring options and discovering a successful route to the vision. Also, the work of early tranches might show the vision is unattainable.
5.4 DELIVERING THE CAPABILITY
During the ‘Delivering the Capability’ process the programme management team initiates and then oversees a range of projects which will deliver the capabilities needed for the new organizational blueprint. As each project begins, the programme manager should ensure that each project management team fully understands the project brief and the role it will play in delivering the wider programme vision. As each project progresses, the programme manager should continually review the project’s alignment with the programme vision.
5.5 REALIZING THE BENEFITS
In the ‘Realizing the Benefits’ process, the capabilities delivered by the projects are transitioned into use. People will be faced with new ways of working as they start to use the new capabilities and operate in the new environment. They will have to change their behaviour. As I have already described in the ‘Importance of the Vision’ section, faced with change people often resist. ‘The Realizing the Benefits’ process emphasizes the importance of using the vision to motivate people and help overcome this resistance to change. The BCM’s play a key role in this activity. They communicate the vision statement to their different areas of the organization.
5.6 CLOSING THE PROGRAMME
The programme is closed at the end of the transformational flow. To authorize the programme’s end, the SRO needs to evaluate whether either the vision has been achieved, or that significant progress towards the vision is evident. Certainly, the organizational blueprint and all its associated capabilities should have been delivered. Additionally, sufficient benefits should have been realized so that there can be confidence that full benefits will be delivered in the business as usual environment.
Summary of vision and the MSP framework
MSP provides a robust programme management framework within which the programme vision can sit. This framework helps a programme management team see when a vision needs to be developed and enhanced through a programme life. It shows how the array of other important programme information always links back to the vision. It outlines clear vision responsibilities and allocates these to a range of MSP programme roles. It sets out how to create communication plans and stakeholder engagement strategies to spread the vision across all parts of the organization.
Looking at areas of improvement, MSP’s perspective on vision implies that a vision should be a statement. To reiterate, visions can take many forms and often the most engaging way of presenting a vision is through pictures, photographs or videos.
Creating an engaging vision: hints and tips
For many change programmes, creating a vision is almost a tick box exercise. A set of sentences is quickly created which attempts to describe the future of the organization post programme. The vision is just a collection of rather hackneyed aspirational, abstract phrases which has been heard multiple times before and fails to inspire.
Beware of vision statements that contain any of the following phrases: ‘best of breed’, ‘world beating’, ‘customer-focused’, ‘high-quality’ or ‘cutting edge’. These phrases are so abstract as to be meaningless. It is very difficult to use these phrases to visualise the future. They are not fresh, inspirational or engaging.
In their book Made to Stick (Heath, 2007), the Heath brothers look at why some ideas survive, and others die. They propose that a sticky idea follows the ‘SUCCES’ pattern:
- Simple: find the core of any idea
- Unexpected: grab people’s attention by surprising them
- Concrete: make sure an idea can be grasped and remembered later
- Credible: give an idea believability
- Emotional: help people see the importance of an idea
- Stories: empower people to use an idea through narrative.
These ideas can be applied to a vision statement to make them more engaging. I particularly like the idea of using stories. This doesn’t mean to say that we turn a vision statement into a long work of fiction, but instead turn business, abstract phrases into narrative phrases that are easier for the audience to relate to.
Here is an example of a vision statement following the SUCCES formula which could be used for a training organization rolling out a programme to deliver virtual and distance learning using new digital tools:
The vision is in a narrative form and by introducing a ‘character’, it immediately becomes engaging. It is also short, memorable and simple.
Vision example: Port of London Authority
The Port of London Authority (PLA) is a self-funding public body which oversees London’s main river, the Thames. They have a range of responsibilities such as maintaining and supervising navigation along the river and protecting the river’s environment. In 2015, the PLA worked extensively with a range of stakeholders to develop a vision for the river Thames. The end result is the Thames 2035 vision which provides a framework for the PLA’s work over the next decade.
PLA’s vision was developed through an extensive process of stakeholder engagement. Literally hundreds of organizations ranging from local government councils, commercial docks, sports clubs, national government departments, conservation societies and river cruise companies were involved in contributing to the process. This is incredibly important for the PLA because some of the objectives could conflict. The economic aims of increasing the transportation of goods could easily conflict with the environmental, community and recreational aims.
The vision is communicated using a range of rich communication methods. The vision is described in a document with accompanying photographs which reinforce the ideas of the goals. However, what I like best is a five-minute video that communicates the vision. (Port of London Authority, 2016) From the video, the viewer gets a sense of the scale and breadth of the vision as they are taken on multiple fly overs of the River Thames with a background of inspirational music. This aligns to the MSP guidance that a vision should have a sense of boldness.
In the video you see how the vision brings together stakeholders with seemingly conflicting objectives; there are clips of seals and porpoises living alongside vast container ships, there are modern clippers shooting along the water way past the ancient Tower of London and there are busy inlands wharves not so far away from ramblers walking along a quiet river side path. This aligns to the MSP guidance of ensuring the vision focuses on the broadest grouping of stakeholders as the target audience. It helps to provide one of the key benefits of a vision, drawing a range of stakeholders together to move to a common cause.
Another key characteristic of any vision is that it is verifiable. The PLA have set measurable targets in many of the areas that the vision covers. For example the objective is to handle 60 to 80 million tonnes of cargo each year, take 400,000 lorry trips off the region’s roads, double the number of people travelling by the river to 20 million and create the cleanest river since before the industrial revolution.
Some of the vision’s objectives are more difficult to measure. For example, how do you measure increased participation in sports and recreation along a river as large as the Thames? In this respect the PLA has commissioned the first Thames sports participation study which identified a strong baseline of activity and opportunities for increasing participation in the future.
As we have seen from my review of the MSP’s transformation flow, it is important to continually review progress against the vision. This ensures that the programme is moving in the right direction and gives a sense of momentum which helps overcome resistance to change.
I spent some time with Alistair Gale, the Director of Corporate Affairs of PLA. He has been at the core of developing and communicating the PLA vision. Alistair Gale explained that, at first, they didn’t know whether other organizations would accept PLA’s role in leading the development of the vision. However, they had found that people had welcomed the initiative and it has helped bring a range of disparate stakeholders together. He said the vision had helped the PLA see more clearly which initiatives they should pursue and which were clearly outside the scope of PLA’s remit. The only stakeholder group he felt needed to engage more with the vision were PLA’s own staff. Some of them had difficulty relating what they did day-to-day such as river safety tasks and collecting navigational fees to the broad purpose of the vision.
Over the course of my career, I have been involved in many large change programmes. During that time, I have become more aware of the importance of vision. If it is implemented well, it exerts a powerful, gravitational pull towards the programme’s goal. However, in many instances, the vision is not well- implemented and fails to inspire anyone.
This white paper, through its series of examples and techniques, aims to explore how an engaging vision can be created and present the range of benefits. I hope it will inspire you to take the time and effort to create an engaging vision in your next change programme.
About the author
David Hinde has worked with PRINCE2 for over twenty years. He has delivered a range of large-scale projects using the method for clients such as the Department of Education, the BBC, and Islington Borough Council. He has taught leadership and management skills including PRINCE2 for over ten years, working with Learning Tree and delivering training to attendees from a range of organizations such as Deloitte and Touche and NATO. He has worked in a large range of cultural environments across many different industries, organizational types, and countries. He is the author of the PRINCE2 Study Guide published in 2011 by Wiley and the Project Manager and the Pyramid published by Orgtopia in 2017.
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